Engineering outline

Types of engineering

Drafting is used in nearly every subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, and by many other branches of engineering and architecture. Engineers often use online documents and books such as those published by ASM [29] to aid them in determining the type of failure and possible causes. Structural analysis is often used by mechanical engineers after a failure has occurred, or when designing to prevent failure. At its simplest, thermodynamics is the study of energy, its use and transformation through a system. Dynamics might be used when designing the car's engine, to evaluate the forces in the pistons and cams as the engine cycles. Micro electro-mechanical systems MEMS [ edit ] Micron-scale mechanical components such as springs, gears, fluidic and heat transfer devices are fabricated from a variety of substrate materials such as silicon, glass and polymers like SU8. Other CAE programs commonly used by mechanical engineers include product lifecycle management PLM tools and analysis tools used to perform complex simulations. This method has many benefits, including easier and more exhaustive visualization of products, the ability to create virtual assemblies of parts, and the ease of use in designing mating interfaces and tolerances. In addition, CAE analysis programs can model complicated physical phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows.

It is an interdisciplinary branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and software engineering that is concerned with integrating electrical and mechanical engineering to create hybrid systems.

A technical drawing can be a computer model or hand-drawn schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part, as well as assembly notes, a list of required materials, and other pertinent information.

Types of engineering

Optionally, an engineer may also manually manufacture a part using the technical drawings. These robots may be of any shape and size, but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world. A technical drawing can be a computer model or hand-drawn schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part, as well as assembly notes, a list of required materials, and other pertinent information. No physical prototype need be created until the design nears completion, allowing hundreds or thousands of designs to be evaluated, instead of a relative few. Many companies employ assembly lines of robots, especially in Automotive Industries and some factories are so robotized that they can run by themselves. Outside the factory, robots have been employed in bomb disposal, space exploration , and many other fields. Micro electro-mechanical systems MEMS [ edit ] Micron-scale mechanical components such as springs, gears, fluidic and heat transfer devices are fabricated from a variety of substrate materials such as silicon, glass and polymers like SU8. Some technologies at the cutting edge of mechanical engineering are listed below see also exploratory engineering. Fatigue failure occurs because of imperfections in the object: a microscopic crack on the surface of the object, for instance, will grow slightly with each cycle propagation until the crack is large enough to cause ultimate failure. Areas of research[ edit ] Mechanical engineers are constantly pushing the boundaries of what is physically possible in order to produce safer, cheaper, and more efficient machines and mechanical systems. It plays an important role in the future construction of airplanes, potentially replacing rivets. To create a robot, an engineer typically employs kinematics to determine the robot's range of motion and mechanics to determine the stresses within the robot.

The innovative steady state non-fusion welding technique joins materials previously un-weldable, including several aluminum alloys. Modern tools[ edit ] An oblique view of a four-cylinder inline crankshaft with pistons Many mechanical engineering companies, especially those in industrialized nations, have begun to incorporate computer-aided engineering CAE programs into their existing design and analysis processes, including 2D and 3D solid modeling computer-aided design CAD.

Manually manufactured parts generally consist spray coatingssurface finishes, and other processes that cannot economically or practically be done by a machine.

father of engineering

Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system for the vehicle see HVACor to design the intake system for the engine. In addition, CAE analysis programs can model complicated physical phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows.

If the engineering project were the design of a vehicle, statics might be employed to design the frame of the vehicle, in order to evaluate where the stresses will be most intense.

mechanical engineering

Fatigue failure occurs when an object fails after a number of repeated loading and unloading cycles. Mechanical engineers use thermo-science to design engines and power plantsheating, ventilation, and air-conditioning HVAC systems, heat exchangersheat sinksradiatorsrefrigerationinsulationand others.

Areas of research[ edit ] Mechanical engineers are constantly pushing the boundaries of what is physically possible in order to produce safer, cheaper, and more efficient machines and mechanical systems.

It plays an important role in the future construction of airplanes, potentially replacing rivets.

Engineering disciplines

MDO tools wrap around existing CAE processes, allowing product evaluation to continue even after the analyst goes home for the day. These graduates will help expand the technological base, accelerate the pace of innovation, and spur significant gains in productivity and global competitiveness. Main article: Mechanics Mechanics is, in the most general sense, the study of forces and their effect upon matter. ES has since produced a new class of engineer-scientists who are better prepared to solve the complex problems that our societies face, with innovative designs, value-added technology developments and integrated systems that work at the interfaces of disciplines. Drafting is used in nearly every subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, and by many other branches of engineering and architecture. It is an interdisciplinary branch of mechanical engineering, electrical engineering and software engineering that is concerned with integrating electrical and mechanical engineering to create hybrid systems. Mechanics of materials , the study of how different materials deform under various types of stress Fluid mechanics , the study of how fluids react to forces [27] Kinematics , the study of the motion of bodies objects and systems groups of objects , while ignoring the forces that cause the motion. Robots are used extensively in industrial engineering. Fatigue failure occurs because of imperfections in the object: a microscopic crack on the surface of the object, for instance, will grow slightly with each cycle propagation until the crack is large enough to cause ultimate failure. Continuum mechanics , a method of applying mechanics that assumes that objects are continuous rather than discrete Mechanical engineers typically use mechanics in the design or analysis phases of engineering. Drafting has historically been a two-dimensional process, but computer-aided design CAD programs now allow the designer to create in three dimensions. If these systems do not break, failure analysis might be employed to determine the cause.

Thermodynamics principles are used by mechanical engineers in the fields of heat transferthermofluidsand energy conversion. These robots may be of any shape and size, but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world.

Purpose of engineering

Micro electro-mechanical systems MEMS [ edit ] Micron-scale mechanical components such as springs, gears, fluidic and heat transfer devices are fabricated from a variety of substrate materials such as silicon, glass and polymers like SU8. Static structural failure occurs when, upon being loaded having a force applied the object being analyzed either breaks or is deformed plastically , depending on the criterion for failure. The innovative steady state non-fusion welding technique joins materials previously un-weldable, including several aluminum alloys. Mechanical systems open and close the drive, spin the CD and move the laser, while an optical system reads the data on the CD and converts it to bits. Current uses of this technology to date include welding the seams of the aluminum main Space Shuttle external tank, Orion Crew Vehicle test article, Boeing Delta II and Delta IV Expendable Launch Vehicles and the SpaceX Falcon 1 rocket, armor plating for amphibious assault ships, and welding the wings and fuselage panels of the new Eclipse aircraft from Eclipse Aviation among an increasingly growing pool of uses. In addition, CAE analysis programs can model complicated physical phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows. Optionally, an engineer may also manually manufacture a part using the technical drawings. Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system for the vehicle see HVAC , or to design the intake system for the engine. Main articles: Structural analysis and Failure analysis Structural analysis is the branch of mechanical engineering and also civil engineering devoted to examining why and how objects fail and to fix the objects and their performance. As mechanical engineering begins to merge with other disciplines, as seen in mechatronics , multidisciplinary design optimization MDO is being used with other CAE programs to automate and improve the iterative design process. Robots are used extensively in industrial engineering. To this end, many premier universities recognized the need to provide a differentiated engineering education to better prepare their students for research and technology developments at the interfaces of diverse disciplines. Structural analysis is often used by mechanical engineers after a failure has occurred, or when designing to prevent failure. Analysis tools may be used to predict product response to expected loads, including fatigue life and manufacturability.
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Mechanical engineering